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REDRESS is a human rights organisation that helps torture survivors obtain justice and reparation. REDRESS works with survivors to help restore their dignity and to make torturers accountable.




REDRESS prioritises the interests and perspectives of survivors in all aspects of its work. The highest priority in decisions and interventions is given to promoting survivors’ well-being and the avoidance of further traumatisation.


Following his release in 1984, Keith Carmichael, a torture survivor, consulted those with extensive experience in human rights, law and non-governmental organizations about how to go about seeking reparation for torture. He also met with over 90 other survivors many of whom, like him, wanted to seek redress but did not know how to go about it. While existing NGOs helped survivors in other ways - by campaigning for their release, providing safe havens and medical care - none assisted them to obtain reparation. While the right to reparation existed in law, the practical difficulties in obtaining reparation proved difficult to overcome.

Keith Carmichael developed the concept for REDRESS in consultation with four persons in particular: the late Peter Davies OBE, former Director of Anti-Slavery International, Dame Rosalyn Higgins QC, Leah Levin, former Director of Justice, and Professor David Weissbrodt of the University of Minnesota, who shared the same interest in seeking ways of obtaining reparation for victims of torture. In 1990, a concept paper for a new initiative, REDRESS - a programme to focus on the right of torture survivors to reparation and to assist them to seek a remedy - was circulated.

The idea was discussed further at the IV International Symposium on Torture and the Medical Profession held in October 1991 in Budapest, and again at the Symposium on Human Rights and Development in December 1991 in Manila. Among others, Eric Sottas, Director of OMCT/SOS-Torture, Professor Bent Sorensen, and Dr Inge Gnefke, participated in the discussion. The conclusion was that there was a need for such a specialised organisation and an action programme should be developed. Keith Carmichael established REDRESS which was registered as a charity in the UK in December 1992.

On 29 September 2016, REDRESS opened its office in The Hague, building on REDRESS' long experience of collaborating with the International Criminal Court and other international justice institutions on issues such as victim participation and reparation in criminal trials.

REDRESS Nederland works to eradicate the practice of torture, prosecute torturers and ensure that survivors of torture obtain reparation for all the harm they suffered. The new office in The Hague extends REDRESS' presence in Europe and globally. While REDRESS' mission is the same in London and the Netherlands, REDRESS Nederland has a structure that is independent of REDRESS London.

Download a Timeline of REDRESS' history here

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Where We Work


Victims Rights Working Groups

Criminal Law Reform in Sudan

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